A woman prays at the Srebrenica Memorial, Bosnia
An Iraqi man holds pictures of family members lost
The Vietnam Veterans Memorial, Washington DC

Every Casualty

Every casualty of armed conflict should be promptly recorded, correctly identified, and publicly acknowledged. This programme draws on the principles of human security to develop and enhance the technical and institutional capacity, identify and consolidate the legal requirements, and build the political will for every single casualty of armed conflict throughout the world to be recorded in this way. The programme incorporates research into emerging good practice and existing legal frameworks, the development and promotion of clearer and more effective regulatory instruments, and the creation and support of advocacy networks. For the latest developments and commentary on issues related to casualty recording, see our website www.everycasualty.org.


Photo Credits: AFP/Elvis Barukcic, AP/Anja Niedringhaus, Gregory Jordan http://bit.ly/axSmfD

The purpose of the Every Casualty (EC) programme is to enhance the technical, legal and institutional capacity, as well as the political will,  for every single casualty of armed conflict throughout the world to be recorded, civilian as well as combatant. Civilian deaths are particularly poorly documented, and often not recorded at all. Where death tolls are limited to purely numerical assessments, exaggerated, politicised claims and counter-claims frequently abound. By contrast, where Western nations are engaged in conflicts, they record their military dead not as numbers but by name.

Detailed, verifiable and comprehensive recording, when extended to all victims, provides both a memorial for posterity and public recognition of our common humanity. Careful and respectful records ensure that the human cost of conflict is better understood and can become an immediately applicable resource for conflict prevention and post-conflict recovery and reconciliation.

The Every Casualty programme (formerly known as the Recording Casualties of Armed Conflict programme) is divided into two parallel but interrelated streams, which complement and support each other:

Practice Stream: The Support and Development of Effective Practice in Casualty Recording

This stream focuses on those organisations and individuals that have already made direct contributions to the work of casualty recording. Our aim is to bring these organisations and individuals - previously operating in isolation - into productive dialogue and peer exchange.

The stream currently has two projects:

  • The International Practitioner Network (IPN) of casualty recording organisations, a pioneer of its kind in the world whose members are all organisations that document violent deaths from conflict. The Network aims to provide a platform for the sharing of common problems, solutions and aspirations between members. The goal is to provide lasting benefit to members in their own individual work, advance members’ shared goal of strengthening practice and facilitate a more effective and united voice among practitioners. We are currently working with the IPN and other key stakeholders to develop standards in casualty recording.
  • Researching Casualty Recording Practice, an ongoing research project to analyse current practice in casualty recording. The aim of researching current practice is to help develop and strengthen recording, towards establishing this activity as a robust and recognised field. Such research is of use to current casualty recorders, the grounding of future projects, and the needs of the field as a whole. It also supports well-informed advocacy for casualty recording. We are currently researching state and UN practice in casualty recording.

Advocacy Stream: The Development of International Norms and Standards

In this stream we work to develop the concepts and tools which will be necessary for governments and intergovernmental organisations to come together in a concerted effort to support the spread of effective and credible casualty recording. Our strategy includes detailed research into existing international regulatory instruments, including their unrealised potentials and possible shortcomings, and carefully-framed proposals on how to more effectively embed casualty recording within international systems. It also includes engaging individuals and organisations as well as state actors well-placed to act as champions for casualty recording on the international stage.

Our previous project in this stream is:

  • Making Casualty Recording a Legal Requirement, a comprehensive investigation into the law as it applies to all aspects of casualty recording, aiming to demonstrate that the recording of casualties is consistent with commitments already made by the international community and identifying how these can be further developed.

For the latest information about the activities of Every Casualty, go to www.everycasualty.org


Programme Video

In this video, filmed by Daniel Ridicki for ORG in 2011, the work of the Every Casualty programme is explained by John Sloboda (Co-Director of the Every Casualty programme) and Elizabeth Minor (Research Officer of the Every Casualty Programme). The video was recorded at the launch of the Charter for the Recognition of Every Casualty, following the first conference of the ORG-facilitated International Practitioner Network of casualty recording organisations (IPN), in London in September 2011.


Past and Long-term Contributors to the Every Casualty Programme:

Dr Neta Crawford (Advisor); Dr. Eric Herring (Advisor); Hanny Megally (Advisor); Richard Moyes (Advisor); Tom Porteous (Advisor); Dr Jay Silverstein (Advisor); Mirsad Tokaca (Advisor)


Hamit Dardagan

Hamit Dardagan is the Co-Director of the Every Casualty programme at Oxford Research Group (ORG). He became ORG’s Consultant on Civilian Casualties in War in 2007. 


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Professor John Sloboda

John Sloboda is Co-Director with Hamit Dardagan of Oxford Research Group's (ORG) Every Casualty programme. From 2004 to 2009 he was Executive Director of ORG.

He is also Emeritus...

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Kate Hofstra

Kate Hofstra is the Research and Communications Consultant for Oxford Research Group's (ORG) Every Casualty programme. She joined ORG in 2013.

Kate previously worked for TLG, a London-...

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Rachel Joyce

Rachel Joyce is a Legal Consultant and Researcher on Oxford Research Group's (ORG) Every Casualty programme. Rachel has contributed to both research and advocacy for Every Casualty, working...

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Elizabeth Minor

Elizabeth Minor is the Senior Research Officer on Oxford Research Group's (ORG) Every Casualty programme. She was the principal researcher on a two-year study by ORG to investigate practice...

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Hana Salama

Hana Salama is the Senior Advocacy Officer of the Every Casualty programme at Oxford Research Group (ORG). She joined ORG in February 2012. Hana works with members of the ORG-hosted...

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Professor Susan Breau

Susan Breau is Legal Consultant to Oxford Research Group's (ORG) Every Casualty programme. She has been Professor of International Law at Flinders University, Australia, since July 2010. Her research...

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Brigadier-General (Retired), CMG, OBE Richard Iron

Richard Iron is Military Consultant to Oxford Research Group’s (ORG) Every Casualty programme. Educated at Trinity Hall, Cambridge, he has served in the Sultan of Oman’s Armed Forces and completed...

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Everett Ressler

Everett Ressler works in the humanitarian field as a practioner, lecturer and researcher.  He has participated in more than 150 emergencies internationally and has monitored and supported...

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Professor Michael Spagat

Michael Spagat  is Consultant on Oxford Research Group's (ORG) Every Casualty programme. Michel is a Professor of Economics at Royal Holloway College, University of London. He gained his PhD. at...

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